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By Louis Kuritzky, MD, Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Florida, Gainesville. Dr. Kuritzky is a consultant for Sucampo Pharmaceuticals, Takeda, Boehringer Ingelheim; and is a consultant and on the speaker's bureau for Novo Nordisk, Lilly, Daiichi Sankyo, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Cephalon, Novartis, and Sanofi Aventis.
Oxygen therapy for cluster headache
Source: Cohen A, et al. High flow oxygen for treatment of cluster headache. JAMA 2009;302:2451-2457.
The pain of cluster headache (CLUS) is among the most severe of any clinical syndrome. The advent of triptans, especially sumatriptan injection, has restructured the landscape of CLUS management, since SQ sumatriptan has been shown to provide effective CLUS pain relief within 15 minutes. Unfortunately, since some patients with CLUS have multiple attacks per day, for multiple days, triptan dosing limitations preclude use in these high-frequency sufferers. Additionally, CLUS patients with CAD are unable to use triptans.
Another first-line CLUS treatment is high-flow oxygen (OXY). Advantageous aspects of oxygen treatment include its low adverse-effect profile, ability to be combined with other treatments, and applicability for multiple attacks within a short time frame. Despite commonplace clinical use, trial data on OXY are quite limited.
Cohen et al performed a randomized placebo-controlled study to compare 100% oxygen vs room air (both delivered at 12 L/min for 15 min). Study participants (n = 109) were followed for 5 years, with instructions to treat at least 4 attacks of CLUS with either OXY or placebo (room air). All subjects received indistinguishable separate tanks of 100% oxygen and room air, and were instructed to alternate tanks for sequential CLUS episodes in their home.
The primary endpoint of the study was percent of individuals pain-free at 15 min. OXY was much superior to air (78% vs 20% pain free). Randomized, placebo-controlled confirmation of our clinical practice supports continued appropriateness of OXY for CLUS.
Resistance vs aerobic exercise and COPD
Source: O'Shea S, et al. Progressive resistance exercise improves muscle strength and may improve elements of performance of daily activities for people with COPD. Chest 2009;136: 1269-1283.
Copd is currently the 4th most common cause of death in the United States. Other than smoking cessation, only oxygen therapy in late-stage disease has been shown to modify disease. Pharmacotherapy provides improvements in symptoms and pulmonary function tests, but has not been shown to alter disease progression.
Physical deconditioning is commonplace in COPD. Indeed, the pathologic phenomenon seen in COPD of dynamic hyperinflation an even greater diminution in ability to utilize expiratory reserve during exercise than at rest helps explain why COPD patients may lack enthusiasm for aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise trials indicate that COPD patients can improve muscle strength, but whether such improvements translate into incremental symptomatic benefit or ability to participate in activities of daily living is uncertain.
O'Shea et al performed a meta-analysis of 18 controlled trials employing progressive resistance exercises for COPD patients. The data show some benefits of resistance exercise in ability to rise from a sitting position and climb stairs; however, trials comparing aerobic training vs resistance training indicated more favorable outcomes for activities like cycling, and that resistance training added to aerobic training provides little if any additional benefit. Finally, studies that indicated resistance training benefits for activities of daily living were ranked as having higher risk of bias. More studies specifically addressing the effects of resistance training upon functionality in COPD are needed.
Breast cancer outcomes and soy intake
Source: Shu XO, et al. Soy food intake and breast cancer survival. JAMA 2009; 302:2437-2443.
Estrogen is felt to play a role in the development of breast cancer (BCA), and modulation of estrogen is utilized as a treatment for BCA. Soy foods contain a large amount of phyto-estrogens, which impact natural estrogen receptors. Soy components have also been shown to possess anticancer effects. Ultimately, whether dietary soy affects important outcomes like survival or progression of disease among subjects with cancers that may be estrogen-sensitive like BCA is critical to ascertain.
Shu et al studied data from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, which provides a population of Chinese breast cancer survivors (n = 5042). After approximately 4 years of follow-up, the relationship between soy intake and BCA recurrence, overall mortality, and BCA-related deaths was evaluated. There was a consistent, linear, and inverse relationship between soy intake and mortality and BCA recurrence. When compared with persons in the lowest quartile of soy intake, those in the highest quartile enjoyed a 29% lower relative risk of mortality, and a 32% lower risk of BCA recurrence.
The relationship between soy intake and favorable outcomes was not altered by estrogen receptor-positive or -negative status or tamoxifen use.
Average soy intake in U.S. women (1-6 mg/day) is markedly less than Chinese women (47 mg/d). Whether incremental dietary soy increases in the U.S. population will translate into risk reduction has not been determined.